Expanding the reach of immuno-oncology: considerations for optimizing treatment of solid malignancies in the future
Immuno-Oncology Insights 2022; 3(3), 99–114
The treatment of cancer has been rapidly changing with the emergence of highly effective immunotherapies. The majority of this success stems from the development of monoclonal antibodies targeting negative regulatory immune checkpoint molecules. Despite the efficacy of these immune checkpoint inhibitors across a range of tumor types, unfortunately about 70% of patients  either do not respond to treatment or subsequently develop resistance to checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Here, we will review the current landscape of immune-modifying treatments, ranging from chemotherapy and radiation to cellular therapies, which have the potential to further increase the clinical impact of immunotherapy. We will also highlight some of the current challenges in the field. These include the need for further mechanistic studies to better understand the complex biology of the anti-tumor response and to identify better biomarkers to rationally inform the selection of novel immunotherapy combinations. Further insights in the function of the immune system will allow the maximal leveraging of the growing number of immunotherapeutic modalities available in the clinic.